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Real-time MRI

The following examples are real-time MRI movies that represent preliminary applications of our novel method to various physiological processes. All data have been acquired at a field strength of 3 T using a Siemens Prismafit. A few preliminary applications exist at field strengths of 1.5 T and 7 T.

For technical details see Methodology.

The basic reference is: M. Uecker, S. Zhang, D. Voit, A. Karaus, K.D. Merboldt, J. Frahm. Real-time MRI at a resolution of 20 ms. NMR Biomed. 23, 986-994 (2010).[Online Version]

 

Overview:
Joint Movements
Oropharyngeal Functions
Swallowing / Esophageal Function (10 ml Pineapple Juice)
Cardiovascular Function
Quantitative Blood Flow - Velocity-Encoded Phase-Contrast MRI
Quantitative T1 Mapping
Interactive Real-time MRI
3D Localization in Real Time - Spatially Encoded Phase-Contrast MRI

 



Joint Movements


 

Temporomandibular: Opening and Closing of the Mouth.

T1 Contrast T2/T1 Contrast

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled / Refocused Radial FLASH , 0.75 × 0.75 × 5 mm3, Acquisition Time 66.7 ms, 15 Frames per Second

 


Anterior Displacement without Reduction Anterior Displacement with Reduction

Experimental details: Refocused Radial FLASH , 0.75 × 0.75 × 5 mm3, Acquisition Time 66.7 ms, 15 Frames per Second
Collaboration: Krohn, Gersdorff, Bürgers, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
Reference: S Krohn et al, Eur J Radiol http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2016.10.020

 

Wrist

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 0.75 × 0.75 mm2, Total Acquisition Time 50 ms, 20 Frames per Second
Collaboration: Seif, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, NORAS MRI products GmbH, Höchberg

 



Oropharyngeal Functions


 

Speaking

Experimental details: radial FLASH, 1.5×1.5×10.0 mm3.

 

Nasalization of Vowels

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.5 × 1.5 × 10 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second
Reference: A Niebergall et al, Magn Reson Med 69:477-485, 2013.  [Online Version]

 

Stuttering

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.4 × 1.4 × 8 mm3, Acquisition Time 18.0 ms, 55 Frames per Second
Collaboration: Sommer, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen

 

Singing and Horn Playing

Experimental details: radial FLASH, 1.5×1.5×10.0 mm3.
References:
Iltis, Peter W., et al., Human Movement Science 42 (2015): 132-145.
[Online Version]
Iltis, Peter W., et al., Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery 5.3 (2015): 374-381.[Online Version]
Collaboration: PW Iltis, Boston; E Altenmüller, Hannover



Swallowing / Esophageal Function (10 ml Pineapple Juice)


 


Normal Swallowing Dysphagia

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.3 × 1.3 × 8 mm3, Acquisition Time 40.0 ms, 25 Frames per Second.
References:
A Olthoff et al, "On the physiology of normal swallowing as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging in real time." Gastroenterology research and practice 2014.
[Online Version]
A Olthoff et al, Evaluation of dysphagia by novel real-time magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology. [Online Version]
Collaboration: Olthoff, Beham & Ghadimi, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen


Oral Cavity Esophagus

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.3 × 1.3 × 8 mm3, Acquisition Time 40.0 ms, 25 Frames per Second.
Collaboration: Olthoff, Beham & Ghadimi, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen


Esophageal Sphincter

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.3 × 1.3 × 8 mm3, Acquisition Time 40.0 ms, 25 Frames per Second.
Reference: Zhang, S., et al. "Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease using real-time magnetic resonance imaging."
Scientific Reports (2015).
[Online Version]
Collaboration: Olthoff, Beham & Ghadimi, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen



Cardiovascular Function



For recent overview about real-time MRI of cardiovascular functon see
"Real-time magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac function and flow — recent progress".
Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2014 Oct; 4(5): 313–329.[Online Version]

 


Four-Chamber View Short-Axis View

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.6 × 1.6 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.

 

Valsalva Manoeuver


Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.6 × 1.6 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.

 

55 & 100 Frames per Second

18.0 ms 10.0 ms

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.6 × 1.6 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 18.0 / 10.0 ms, 55 / 100 Frames per Second.

 


Balanced SSFP

Experimental details: Fully Balanced Radial FLASH, 1.6 × 1.6 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.

 

Atrial Fibrillation

ECG-Synchronized CINE-MRI Real-Time MRI

Experimental details: Radial bSSFP, 1.6 × 1.6 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.



Quantitative Blood Flow - Velocity-Encoded Phase-Contrast MRI


 

Ascending Aorta, Venc = 200 cm s-1



Magnitude Image Phase-Contrast Map Analysis of 14 Heartbeats

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.3 × 1.3 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 40.0 ms, 25 Frames per Second.
Reference: AA Joseph et al, NMR Biomed (2012) [Online Version]

 

Aortic Valve Insufficiency & Stenosis, Venc = 300 cm s-1



Magnitude Image Phase-Contrast Map Analysis of 12 Heartbeats

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.5 × 1.5 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 35.7 ms, 28 Frames per Second.
Reference: Untenberger et al, Magn Reson Med (2015) [Online Version]

 

Blood Flow and Muscle Movement, Venc = 40 cm s-1


Magnitude Image Phase-Contrast Map

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.0 × 1.0 × 4 mm3, Acquisition Time 50 ms, 20 Frames per Second.
Reference: AA Joseph et al, Real-time MRI of deep venous flow during muscular exercise. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. [Online Version]
Collaboration: NORAS MRI products GmbH, Höchberg

 

CSF Flow Through 3rd Ventricle: Repetitive Inspiration (2.5 s)

Signal

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 0.75 × 0.75 × 5 mm3, Acquisition Time 50 ms, 20 Frames per Second.
Reference: S Dreha-Kulaczewski et al, J Neurosci 35:2485-2491 (2015) 
[Online Version]

 

Model-Based Reconstruction

Complex Difference - 28 fps Model-based Reconstruction - 39 fps

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.5 × 1.5 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 25.6 ms, 39 Frames per Second.
Reference: Tan et al, Magn Reson Med 77:1082-1093, 2017  
[Online Version]



Quantitative T1 Mapping


 

Single-Shot T1 Mapping (inversion recovery)

T1Map T1Map
Seriel Images After Inversion T1 / s

Radial IR-FLASH, 0.75 × 0.75 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 81.5 ms per frame, Measurement Time 4 s

Signal
22 Brain Sections in 88 s Slice #15, Magnified

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 0.5 × 0.5 × 5 mm3, 64 ms per Frame, Measuring Time 4 s.
References:
X Wang et al, The Open Med Imaging J 9:1-8, 2015 [Online Version]
Hofer, Sabine, et al., Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 9 (2015). [Online Version]

 

T1Map T1Map T1Map
T1 / s T1 / s

Radial IR-FLASH, 1.3 × 1.3 × 8 mm3, Acquisition Time 61 ms per frame, Measurement Time 4 s

 

Signal Signal
Liver & Kidney Magnification

RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH,1.0 × 1.0 × 8 mm3, 43 ms per Frame, Measuring Time 4 s
Reference: X Wang et al, The Open Med Imaging J 9:1-8, 2015 [Online Version]

 

Cardiac T1 mapping with automatic masking of systolic frames

T1Map Diastolic cardiac T1 maps of a basal, mid-ventricular and apical section.

Radial IR-FLASH, 1.0 × 1.0 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 43 ms per frame, Measurement Time 3 s per section
References: X Wang et al, High-resolution myocardial T1 mapping using single-shot inversion-recovery fast low-angle shot MRI with radial undersampling and iterative reconstruction, Br J Radiol. [Online Version]



Interactive Real-time MRI


 


Interactive slice positioning during real-time measurement of the human brain.

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 1.8 × 1.8 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.

 


Interactive slice positioning during real-time measurement of the human heart.

Experimental details: RF-Spoiled Radial FLASH, 2.3 × 2.3 × 6 mm3, Acquisition Time 33.3 ms, 30 Frames per Second.



3D Localization in Real Time - Spatially Encoded Phase-Contrast MRI


 


Real-time 3D MRI of a water-filled tube at 44 ms temporal resolution or 23 frames per second.

Experimental details: spatially encoded phase-contrast radial FLASH, 1.5×1.5 mm2, Total Acquisition Time 44 ms, 23 Frames per Second

 


3D Localization of the Human Hand at 40 ms Resolution.

Experimental details: spatially encoded phase-contrast radial FLASH, 2 × 2 mm2, Total Acquisition Time 40 ms, 25 Frames per Second
Reference: KD Merboldt et al, Magn Reson Med 66, 950-956 (2011) [Online Version]

 
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